Head Image

In quadrupeds, the head is oriented in the same direction as the rest of the body, i.e., it is a continuation of the trunk and neck. In contrast, the human head is oriented with the face directed at a right angle to the neck and trunk. Because of this, the human terminology conflicts that exist for the quadruped body do not exist for the quadruped head.

As illustrated above, human directional terms (red) may be substituted for qudruped directional terms (green) in the head (e.g., the human superior & inferior may substitute for the quadruped dorsal & ventral)

Note: the term "cranial" is always inappropriate for the head, since the cranium is posterior within the head. Instead use "rostral" (derived from the Latin word for beak). The terms medial & lateral apply throughout the body.